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Identification of Galaxy Protoclusters Based on the Spherical Top-hat Collapse Theory
KIAS Author
Park, Changbom,Pichon, Christophe,Lee, Jaehyun,Lee, Jaehyun,Kim, Juhan
We propose a new method for finding galaxy protoclusters that is motivated by structure formation theory and also directly applicable to observations. We adopt the conventional definition that a protocluster is a galaxy group whose virial mass M-vir < M-cl at its epoch, where M-cl = 10(14)M(circle dot), but would exceed that limit when it evolves to z = 0. We use the critical overdensity for complete collapse at z = 0 predicted by the spherical top-hat collapse model to find the radius and total mass of the regions that would collapse at z = 0. If the mass of a region centered at a massive galaxy exceeds M-cl, the galaxy is at the center of a protocluster. We define the outer boundary of a protocluster as the zero-velocity surface at the turnaround radius so that the member galaxies are those sharing the same protocluster environment and showing some conformity in physical properties. We use the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon Run 5 (HR5) to calibrate this prescription and demonstrate its performance. We find that the protocluster identification method suggested in this study is quite successful. Its application to the high-redshift HR5 galaxies shows a tight correlation between the mass within the protocluster regions identified according to the spherical collapse model and the final mass to be found within the clusters at z = 0, meaning that the regions can be regarded as the bona fide protoclusters with high reliability. We also confirm that the redshift-space distortion does not significantly affect the performance of the protocluster identification scheme.